Diabetes mellitus is characterized by abnormally high levels of sugar (glucose) in the blood. When the amount of glucose in the blood increases, e.g., after a meal, it triggers the release of the hormone insulin from the pancreas. Insulin stimulates muscle and fat cells to remove glucose from the blood and stimulates the liver to metabolize glucose, causing the blood sugar level to decrease to normal levels.
In people with diabetes, blood sugar level remains high. This may be because insulin is not being produced at all, is not made at sufficient levels, or is not as effective as it should be.
Types of Diabetes
The most common forms of diabetes are Type 1 diabetes (5%), which is an autoimmune disorder, and Type 2 diabetes (95%), which is associated with obesity. Gestational diabetes is a form of diabetes that occurs in pregnancy, and other forms of diabetes are very rare and are caused by a single gene mutation.
Risk Factors for Diabetes
Many studies have shown that awareness about the diabetes and its complications is poor among the general population especially in the rural areas. There is an urgent need to create awareness among the population regarding diabetes and about the serious consequences of this chronic disorder.
Major risk factors for type 2 diabetes in Indians:
· Positive family history of diabetes
· Age>35 year
· Overweight (Body mass index ≥23kg/m2) and obesity (Body mass index ≥25kg/m2)
· Enlarged waist or upper body adiposity (>90 cm for men and >80cm for women)
· Presence of Hypertension
· Abnormal blood lipid levels & impaired glucose tolerance
· Recent weight gain
· Sedentary lifestyle
· Gestational diabetes
Complications of Diabetes
Diabetes complications are divided into microvascular (due to damage to small blood vessels) and macrovascular (due to damage to larger blood vessels). Microvascular complications include damage to eyes (retinopathy) leading to blindness, to kidneys (nephropathy) leading to renal failure and to nerves (neuropathy) leading to impotence and diabetic foot disorders (which include severe infections leading to amputation).
Macrovascular complications include cardiovascular diseases such as heart attacks, strokes and insufficiency in blood flow to legs. There is evidence from large randomized-controlled trials that good metabolic control in both type 1 and 2 diabetes can delay the onset and progression of these complications.
Symptoms of Diabetes
The signs and symptoms of diabetes are disregarded by many because of the chronic progression of the disease. People do not consider this as a serious problem because unlike many other diseases the consequences of hyperglycemia are not manifested immediately. People are not aware that damage can start several years before symptoms become noticeable. This is unfortunate because recognition of early symptoms can help to get the disease under control immediately and to prevent vascular complications.
Prevention of Diabetes
When it comes to type 2 diabetes the most common type of diabetes, prevention is very important. It's especially important to make diabetes prevention a priority if you're at increased risk of diabetes, such as if you're overweight or you have a family history of the disease or you have been diagnosed with prediabetes (also known as impaired fasting glucose). Diabetes prevention is as basic as eating more healthfully, becoming more physically active and losing a few extra pounds. It's never too late to start. Making a few simple changes in our lifestyle now may help you avoid the serious health complications of diabetes in the future, such as nerve, kidney and heart damage.
Goals of Medical Nutrition Therapy for Diabetes
· Maintain near normal blood glucose levels.
· Achieve optimal serum lipid levels.
· Achieve and maintain a reasonable weight for adults.
· Achieve normal growth and development in children and adolescents.
· Balanced nutrition and positive outcomes for pregnancy and lactation.
· Prevent and treat acute complications such as hypoglycemia and short-term illnesses.
· Strike a balance between food, medication, and exercise.
· Prevent, slow the development of, or treat co-morbidities such as hypertension, cardiovascular disease, and nephropathy.
· Promote balanced nutrition to optimize overall health.
Management of Diabetes
The backbone of diabetes management is proper diet and regular exercise, which have to be individualized. Both could be the only management needed for controlling blood glucose in gestational diabetes, IGT and in type 2 diabetes in its early phase. Patients with type 2 diabetes may require oral hypoglycemic agents and/or insulin, while type 1 patients need insulin therapy to survive. The treatment plan for diabetes may include:
Meal planning and nutritional recommendations as per WHO
Management of associated conditions and complications
We at Zeon Lifesciences aim for “Good Health for All”
With 30+ years of experience in the industry, we are working meticulously to bring the knowledge of nature with innovation and advanced technology in the form of Unique Combinations to our consumers. We believe in fortifying our supplements to match the latest trends and technologies.
One of our potential project includes Medical Nutrition Therapy (MNT), use of MNT is an integral component of diabetes management, and it has been specially designed according to the guidelines of American Diabetes Association (ADA) and World Health Organization (WHO). MNT for Diabetes contains diabetic-specific formulas as oral supplements and tube feeds are associated with improved glycemic control, helps to enhance insulin resistance and lowers diabetic complications. A few Products under Medical Nutrition- Diabetes that Zeon manufactures are-
For more, visit our website https://www.zeonlifesciences.com/medical-nutrition
American Diabetes Association
International Diabetes Federation
National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases